Canada Work Visa For Up To 90 Days Without LMIA Via GATS

General Agreement On Trade In Services (GATS)-All You Need To Know
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A faster route to a Canadian work visa without requiring a Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA) is through the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). It allows skilled foreign workers under three categories to work in Canada for up to 90 days. 

Know General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)?

The World Trade Organization oversees the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), and Canada is one of the member countries. GATS promotes international trade and business travel among its member nations, and there are 164 member countries. 

A GATS Professional is a person who wants to engage in a professional-level activity in a specific profession as part of a services contract obtained by a company in another Member country.

Nevertheless, the person must possess the necessary academic credentials and qualifications recognized by the Canadian professional association. 

Regarding temporary admission of individuals, Canada granted access to three types of business people without the need for a labour market impact assessment: 

  • Business visitors
  • Intra-company transferees
  • Professionals

The Professionals category is to facilitate the short-term admission of a limited number of professionals employed by Member Nations’ in service sectors that Canada has made commitments.

To hire highly skilled foreign workers, Canadian companies can use the subcategories of professionals and intra-company transferees. However, there are certain restrictions for professional admission under GATS. The professionals must meet the occupation requirements below. 



Occupations and requirements under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)

Covered occupations under GATS

Group 1: Engineers, Agrologists, Architects, Forestry experts, Geomatics specialists, and Land surveyors.

Group 2: Foreign legal consultants, urban planners, and senior computer professionals. 

Professionals in the Group 2 category must meet additional requirements related to the prospective Canadian business and the foreign service provider. There are also restrictions on the number of individuals who can enter specific projects.

The table below shows the minimal educational, alternative credentials and licensing requirements for GATS professional occupations. 

Eligibility Criteria for GATS applicants 

A person from another member country who would like to provide services to a Canadian company is considered a professional under GATS. However, the candidate must:

  • Have citizenship of a Member nation or the right to permanent residence in Australia or New Zealand. Other member countries are listed on The World Trade Organization website. 
  • Have professional qualifications in one of the eligible occupations (listed in the table above). 
  • Provide service under a signed contract between a Canadian service consumer and a service provider from a WTO member country.
    • The foreign service provider must not have a commercial presence in Canada in the case of foreign legal experts, urban planners, and senior computer professionals.
  • Must not provide services in the following sectors: education, health-related services, or recreational, cultural, and sports services.
  • Possess qualifications recognized by a professional organization in Canada.
  • Comply with existing temporary entry immigration regulations, including TRV criteria.
  • The employer in Canada must be engaged in substantive business in the case of foreign legal consultants, urban planners, and senior computer professionals.
  • Senior computer specialists have a cap of ten applicants per project.
  • The maximum time frame allowed is three months or 90 consecutive days within a year with no possible extensions. 

Required Documents for GATS applicants 

  • Proof of Citizenship of a World Trade Organization member nation or permanent resident status in Australia or New Zealand;
  • Copy of a signed contract between the Canadian service consumer and the service provider;
    • The contract may have been signed by a foreign service provider based in any Member country or by a Canadian-based company established by that foreign service provider to market its services in Canada.
  • Documentation containing the following information:
    • The province of destination and the profession for which entry to Canada is requested;
    • Position details such as job description, employment duration and payment arrangements; and 
    • Education documents or alternative credentials to perform job duties in Canada. 
  • Proof of the applicant’s professional credentials, including copies of degrees, diplomas, professional licenses, accreditation, or registration;
  • Evidence that the relevant Canadian professional association has properly recognized the applicant’s academic credentials and professional qualifications; and
  • A temporary or permanent license, if necessary, issued by the relevant province or territorial authority.

Remember that GATS Professionals are only allowed to enter for a specific time period. They are given status for the time necessary to finish the job, up to three months, without the possibility of extensions. 

For more information, refer to IRCC’s official page.


  • Third IEC 2023 Draw Sent More Than 7,100 New Invites

    International Experience Canada – IEC 2023 sent more than 7,100 invites in the third round of invitations for the week ending January 27, 2023.

    More than 6,526 invites were sent under the Working Holiday category. Currently, there are 26,667 applicants from 32 countries in the Working Holiday pool.

    More than 342 invitations went to the Young Professional category, while the International Co-op (internship) category received greater than 253 invites.

    So far, IEC 2023 has sent around 19,000 invitations in three draws held this year. As on the January 15 IRCC processing update, the current season of IEC has a processing period of 7 weeks.

    This page lists the countries that have received invites as of January 27, 2023.

    1. IEC 2023 Working Holiday

    Invited profiles under Working Holiday category get an open work permit allowing to work for nearly any business in Canada.

    This is the category for you if you:

    • have no job offer
    • would like to work for more than one company in Canada
    • would want to work in more than one area and make money so that you may travel
    CountryInvitations issued
    week ending 27
    Candidates In PoolAvailable Spots
    Andorra3125
    Australia319247Unlimited
    Austria181050
    Belgium6748519
    Chile206,451To Be Announced
    Costa Rica588861
    Croatia29251
    Czech Republic3841796
    Denmark2916308
    Estonia10790
    France2,6368,5895,063
    Germany01,498To Be Announced
    Greece2514102
    Hong Kong1413125
    Ireland4333389,292
    Italy111931,405
    Japan2745,677244
    Korea Republic1,5002,0012,617
    Latvia6315
    Lithuania192698
    Luxembourg2273
    Netherlands6851222
    New Zealand113822,119
    Norway20115
    Poland4628485
    Portugal59211,602
    San Marino3125
    Slovakia3034219
    Slovenia1271
    Spain12383456
    Sweden219548
    United Kingdom5293843,363
    Total6,52626,66730,359

    3. Young Professionals Category

    In the Young Professionals category, invited applicants get an employer-specific work visa.

    For this category, applicants need to have:

    • a valid job offer from Canadian employer that helps to advance professionally.
    • to work for the same employer in the same place.
    CountryInvitations issued
    week ending 27
    Candidates In PoolAvailable Spots
    Australia75Unlimited
    Austria0159
    Chile45152To Be Announced
    Costa Rica11150
    Croatia0018
    Czech Republic97105
    Estonia009
    France1751091,768
    Germany0102To Be Announced
    Greece1040
    Ireland66139
    Italy1012172
    Latvia007
    Lithuania10114
    Luxembourg0010
    Netherlands86143
    Norway0013
    Poland3299
    Portugal30194
    Slovakia18320
    Slovenia0015
    Spain38129
    Sweden0095
    Switzerland1710166
    Taiwan7732
    Total3424503,207

    3. International Co-op (Internship)

    An employer-specific work visa is issued in the International Co-op (Internship) category. This category is for you, if you

    • are a post-secondary student with a job offer for a work placement or internship in Canada;
    • will complete this work placement or internship to finish your studies; and
    • will work for the same company in the same area throughout your stay in Canada.
    CountryInvitations issued
    week ending 27
    Candidates In PoolAvailable Spots
    Australia00Unlimited
    Austria0019
    Chile21To Be Announced
    Costa Rica005
    Croatia005
    Czech Republic005
    Estonia005
    France2491823,411
    GermanyTo Be Announced41To Be Announced
    Greece0010
    Ireland0147
    Italy0248
    Latvia002
    Lithuania005
    Luxembourg009
    Norway005
    Poland003
    Portugal0050
    Slovakia005
    Slovenia005
    Spain0049
    Sweden0020
    Switzerland2248
    Taiwan039
    Total2532323,765

  • Know Canada Weekly Earnings In All The Provinces

    On January 26, 2023 – Statistics Canada released latest data for average weekly earnings in Canada. They also released the industry-wise and province-wise weekly earnings data.

    Overall average weekly earnings in Canada increased by 4.2% to $1,180.21.

    The job openings fell in six provinces, with Newfoundland and Labrador losing the most (-35.3% to 5,500), followed by Manitoba (-26.5% to 20,600), and New Brunswick (-21.8% to 11,500).

    Ontario, Quebec, and Alberta had lower proportionate drops, while the number of job openings in the remaining provinces remained stable.

    Below listed are the industry-wise and province-wise weekly earnings in Canada and all the provinces.

    Industry-Wise Weekly Earnings in Canada

    IndustryAverage Weekly Earning
    Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction2362.28
    Utilities2068.42
    Professional, scientific and technical services1634.13
    Management of companies and enterprises1570.68
    Information and cultural industries1567.12
    Finance and insurance1556.47
    Public administration1527.13
    Construction1468.27
    Wholesale trade1413.46
    Forestry, logging and support1376.38
    Real estate and rental and leasing1300.33
    Manufacturing1261.16
    Transportation and warehousing1248.94
    Educational services1171.70
    Health care and social assistance1033.25
    Other services (excluding public administration)993.70
    Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services967.36
    Arts, entertainment and recreation713.90
    Retail trade700.82
    Accommodation and food services469.85

    Province-Wise Weekly Earnings in Canada

    ProvinceAverage Weekly Earnings
    Nunavut1579.90
    Northwest Territories1579.40
    Yukon1352.38
    Alberta1277.78
    Ontario1203.64
    Newfoundland and Labrador1178.30
    British Columbia1177.45
    Saskatchewan1149.77
    Quebec1124.11
    New Brunswick1076.99
    Manitoba1076.52
    Nova Scotia1031.80
    Prince Edward Island994.16

    Which Canadian province has the highest weekly earnings?

    Alberta has the average weekly earnings of $1,277.78 followed by Ontario at $1,203.64, Newfoundland and Labrador at $1,178.30, and British Columbia at $1,177.45.

    How much is the weekly earnings in Canada?

    Canada has the average weekly earnings of $1,180.21 as per latest data by Statistics Canada released on January 26, 2023.

    How much is the weekly earnings in Ontario and British Columbia?

    Ontario has the weekly earnings of $1,203.64, while British Columbia has average weekly earnings at $1,177.45

    How much is the weekly earnings in Quebec?

    Quebec has an average weekly earnings of $1,124.11

    Source: Statistics Canada

  • Here Are Most Common Canada Immigration Options In 2023

    Canada is undoubtedly one of the most popular destinations for people who want to move countries. And, righteously so.

    There are so many benefits of living in Canada, including a better lifestyle and education.

    So, if you are someone who wants to move to Canada, but are not sure how to, you are in the right place.

    Canada plans to welcome 465,000 new immigrants in 2023. Due to its labor shortage, Canada relies heavily on immigration.

    Also, in 2021 and 2022, Canada already set a new annual permanent resident record. And, it aims to break the records again in the next couple of years. 

    Each person has their own unique profile. So, based on that you should choose the way that best suits you.

    There is no one simple way to move to Canada. However, since the immigration targets are higher now, it is the best time to state your immigration journey. 

    This article lists all the ways you can move to Canada in 2023.

    Express Entry (EE)

    Express Entry(EE) is the fastest and most popular way to move to Canada. This program lets skilled foreign nationals live and work in Canada.

    If you apply under this program, you can get permanent residence in Canada as soon as six months.

    Moreover, by 2025, Canada plans to invite half a million newcomers. Most of these immigrants will be through one of the three streams of Express Entry:

    Also, with the recent launch of the new NOCs (2021), 16 new occupations now qualify for Express Entry through the Federal Skilled Worker Program. Examples of a few occupations are- truck drivers, nurses, teachers,s and so on. 

    To apply under EE you must first be eligible under one of Canada’s above three federal streams. After which, you need to create an online profile.

    This profile is scored by Canada’s Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS). You get an invitation to apply if you are among the highest-ranking candidates in the Express Entry pool.

    Meeting the CRS cut-offs can be a little difficult.  However, just by being in the pool of candidates, you could be nominated for permanent residence by a province. 

    The cost of immigrating through Express Entry is typically about $2,300 CAD for a single applicant. If you are moving as a couple, it could be around $4,500 CAD.

     Provincial Nominee Programs in Canada

    Another common way of moving to Canada is through a Provincial Nominee Program (PNP).

    Canada aims to welcome 117,500 new immigrations through PNPs by 2025. Each province and territory has many nominee programs.

    So, the only economic stream bigger than Express Entry in 2023 is the combined force of Canada’s PNPs.

    All programs have their own unique eligibility criteria. For instance, some programs need you to have a connection to the province to apply for nomination.

    Furthermore, you might need a job offer from a Canadian employer in order to qualify. In some programs, however, overseas candidates are invited if they are able to meet the needs of the province’s labor market.

    Listed below are the PNP programs for each province- 

    Each PNP has its own processing time. Once you receive a nomination, you need to apply to the federal government for Canadian permanent residence.

    Parts of the PNP also fall under the Express Entry. So, each of the provincial programs mentioned above has specific streams for the federally-operated selection system.

    The cost of applying through a PNP is usually the same as Express Entry. However, there might be some additional fees, depending on the province.

    Certain provinces don’t charge a fee to process PNP applications But some like, Ontario, can charge up to $1,500 CAD.

    Business Immigration

    If you own a business or know how to manage a business, you can move here through a federal or provincial business immigration program.

    Canada plans to welcome 3,500 newcomers through business programs in 2023. These programs usually require a high investment.

    The amount depends on the program you are interested in. listed below are the three common ways you can move to Canada through a business – 

    1. Start-up visa: One of the most popular routes to Canada for business-minded individuals is the Start-Up Visa. To apply for this, you need to have a  qualifying business or a business idea.

    Then, applicants need a designated angel investor group, venture capital fund, or business incubator to support this.

    Lastly, applicants must prove their language ability to live in Canada. Under this visa, you can move to Canada on a work permit.

    During this period you can establish your business here. After which, you can apply for permanent residence.

    However, you need to be actively involved in the management of the business within Canada. 

    2. Provincial Business Programs: Most provinces in Canada have their own entrepreneur programs. These programs fall under the respective Provincial Nominee Programs.

    You can check the requirements of these programs and apply under the Provincial Business Program. 

    3. Self-Employed Programs: You can also move here through the Self-Employed Programs. The federal Self-Employed program is for people who have some prior self-employment experience.

    Moreover, you should want to and be able to make some contribution to the cultural, artistic, or athletic life of Canada. Quebec also has a self-employed program.

    As part of this program, applicants create their own jobs by practicing a profession or pursuing a commercial activity.

    Family Sponsorship

    Canada’s immigration policy emphasizes family reunification. Families in Canada are able to sponsor their relatives to come to Canada.

    So, if you have a qualifying family member who is a PR or citizen of Canada, this might be the easiest way for you to move to Canada.

    The cost of sponsoring a relative is around $1,135 CAD. However, if the sponsor lives in Quebec, additional charges might apply. 

    There are many programs that help PRs and citizens to bring their families here. The two major categories under this program are- 

    Spouses, Partners, and Children: Canada combines spouses, partners, and children in its Immigration Levels Plan. And aims to welcome 78,000 such newcomers in 2023.

    In the spouse and partner stream, you can sponsor your partner from outside or within Canada. This is through the Spouse or Common-Law Partner in Canada Class.

    Moreover, while you wait for your application to be processed, you might qualify for a work permit. The applications take about 12 months to process from start to finish.

    For a child to be sponsored, they have to generally be under 22. Also, they should not have a partner or spouse of their own.

    Children over the age of 22, must prove that they cannot support themselves financially because of a mental or physical condition.

    Or, that they have depended on their parents for financial support since before the age of 22. 

    Parents and Grandparents: Sponsoring parents and grandparents in Canada operate on a lottery system. A sponsor can declare their interest in a pool.

    These applications are drawn at random and issued an invitation to apply. This steams has drawn controversy in the past.

    This is because it is mostly oversubscribed. This pool has not opened for new sponsors since 2020.

    However, three batches of sponsors have been invited to apply since then. IRCC might move to open a new window for the submission of interest to sponsor forms in 2023 soon.

    Alternatively, PGP prospective applicants can apply for Super visa to bring parents and grandparents to Canada.


  • Latest Manitoba PNP Draw Sent 336 New Invites For PR

    January 26, 2023: Today, Manitoba PNP draw (MPNP) invited 336 Letters of Advice to Apply (LAA) under 3 different categories of its PNP (provincial nominee program).

    Most of the LAAs, 253 were sent to Skilled Workers In Manitoba (SWM) with a cut off score 726.

    Cut off score reduced just slightly by 8 points as compared to first MPNP draw of 2023. Lowest cut off score in an MPNP draw was 459 in January 2022 draw.

    Additionally, 60 Letters of Advice to Apply (LAA) went to International Education Stream (IES). Today’s draw sent 18 more LAAs for IES as compared to the last MPNP draw

    Furthermore, 23 LAAs went to Skilled Worker Overseas applicants having a score of 713 or above, under a Strategic Recruitment Initiative. This cut off remained as compared to January 12 MPNP Draw.

    Out of 336 LAAs, 32 were issued to the candidates having a valid Express Entry profiles (FSW, FST, or CEC candidates).

    MPNP says the EOI profiles continue to outnumber their capacity after the resumption of the EOI, post a pause between September 15 and October 6, 2022 due to upgrading of the system.

    Moreover, draw scores have been higher after being resumed with implementation of new TEER system on November 17, 2022.

      Reasons You May Not Have Received An Invitation In This Draw?

      As per the Manitoba PNP, if your score is greater than the lowest-ranked candidate, but still you haven’t received LAA, then below could be the possible reasons:

      • Your did not mention a valid language skills (English/French) Test Number in your EOI, or your language test is no longer valid; or
      • You failed to submit a valid invitation number under Strategic Recruitment Initiative.

      Manitoba Skilled Workers in Manitoba

      This category offers permanent residency to individuals who demonstrate that a Manitoba company has offered them a long-term, full-time job.

      This job offer needs to be after they have completed at least six months (continuous) full-time employment with that company as a temporary foreign worker or international student working graduate.

      Self-employed individuals, business owners, owner-operators and individuals providing services as independent contractors are not eligible.

      If you graduated from a post-secondary program in another Canadian province, must first have been working for a Manitoba employer for at least one year before applying.

      Manitoba International Education Stream:

      • The Graduate Internship Pathway which need a doctoral or master’s degree program from Manitoba in the last 3 years. But, job offer is not mandatory.
      • The Career Employment Pathway which needs to be graduated in the past 3 years from a DLI. But, 1-year full time job offer is required.
      • The International Student Entrepreneur Pilot which needs a full-time post-secondary program from Manitoba. It must be at least two years in duration. It requires the applicant to be 51% owner in a Manitoban business and actively working as a senior manager for last 6 months before applying.

      Language proficiency of CLB 7 is required to apply.

      Manitoba Skilled Workers Overseas:

      To apply under this category, candidates must demonstrate an established connection to Manitoba through:

      • the support of family members or friends
      • previous education or work experience in the province
      • an Invitation to Apply received directly from the MPNP as part of a Strategic Recruitment Initiative.

      Apart from this, you must score at least 60 points based on the five selection factors.

      Click here to calculate your score.

      Who cannot qualify for Manitoba PNP Draw?

      THE FOLLOWING ARE NOT ELIGIBLE TO SUBMIT AN APPLICATION TO THE MPNP:

      • Refugee claimants, or individuals involved in a federal appeal or removal process
      • Live-in Caregivers currently living in Canada
      • Temporary foreign workers currently working and residing in a province other than Manitoba
      • Spouses of Canadian citizens or permanent residents
      • Individuals who have been refused by the MPNP within the last six months and who are not able to address the reason(s) for refusal

      How to Qualify for Manitoba PNP Draw:

      Manitoba PNP does not necessarily requires an Express Entry profile, but need an Expression of Interest to be submitted with Manitoba.

      If you are eligible under one of the above mentioned programs, then click here to create an Expression of Interest with Manitoba.


    • New IRCC Temporary Policy For Spousal Open Work Permit Eligibility

      Starting on January 30, 2023 – The IRCC will temporarily extend open work permit eligibility to spouses and dependent children of most work permit holders at all skill levels.

      This temporary policy was initially announced by Immigration Minister, Sean Fraser on December 2, 2022.

      As announced, phase 1 of this new temporary policy will now come in effect beginning January 30.

      PhaseEffective Date
      Phase 1 – allows family members of employees who come to Canada to apply for an open work visa through the high-wage stream of the Temporary Foreign Worker Program or the International Mobility Program.January 30, 2023
      Phase 2 – Following consultations, the legislation will be expanded to include family members of employees from the low-wage stream of the Temporary Foreign Worker Program.To be decided
      Phase 3 – Consultation with agricultural partners and stakeholders will be conducted to examine the practical viability of expanding the measure to cover family members of agricultural employees.To be decided

      Before this temporary policy, spouses were only eligible for a spousal open work permit, if the principal applicant worked in a high-skill occupation, defined under TEER 0, 1, 2, or 3.

      However, now spouses will be eligible for open work permit if the principal applicant is working in any occupation under TEER 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5.

      IRCC shared eligibility and ineligibility under this new spousal open work permit temporary policy as mentioned below.

      Who is eligible?

      Spouse, common-law partner, or dependent child of a work permit holder is eligible, if the work permit holder in Canada:

      • works in a job of any TEER (Training, Education, Experience and Responsibilities) category (0 to 5), or
      • have an open work permit such as PGWP (post-graduation work permit holder) at all skill levels, or
      • are permanent resident applicant under economic class currently holding a valid work permit

      Who is not eligible at this time?

      Spouses and dependents of work permit holders in TEER 4 or 5 jobs are not eligible at this time, if the work permit holders are currently working:

      Children qualify as dependants if they are:

      • unmarried or don’t have a common-law partner, and
      • less than 22 years of age

      Children aged more than 22 years can also qualify as dependants only if they are:

      • unable to support themselves financially because of a physical or mental condition, and
      • rely on their parents for financially since before they were 22

    • Ontario PNP (OINP) Sent 692 New Invitations For PR

      Today, Ontario Immigrant Nominee Program (OINP) commonly known as Ontario PNP sent 692 invites for permanent residency (PR) under Masters Graduate Stream.

      The draw considered profiles created between November 22, 2022 – January  25, 2023. This is the first OINP Masters Graduate Stream of 2023.

      Invitations were sent to all Expression of Interest (EOI) profiles with OINP with a score of 44 or above.

      Masters Graduate Stream of OINP invited total of 3,890 EOI profiles in 2022 with minimum cut off score ranging from 33 to 46.

      What is Ontario PNP Masters Graduate Stream?

      To be eligible for OINP Masters Graduate Stream, you must have

      • necessary requirements to get a masters degree. Necessary requirements to get a masters degree:
      • CLB level 7 or higher in IELTS/CELPIP/TEF/TCF
      • Before applying, you must have lawfully resided in Ontario for at least one year in the last two years.
      • Settlement funds in your bank account or annual earnings from ongoing employment in Ontario or a job offer in Ontario.
      • Intention to live in Ontario

      How to calculate scores for Ontario PNP Masters Graduate Stream?

      Work or study permit status

      • 10 points for valid work or study permit
      • 0 points without valid work or study permit

      Earnings history

      • 3 points for $40k or more income per year
      • 0 points for less than $40k annually

      Education

      Field of study

      Canadian credential required.

      • 12 points for Engineering, Math, Health, Computer Science and Trades
      • 6 points for business and administration, legal, social, education, security and transport services, behavioural science, personal, social work and related programs
      • 0 points for Arts and humanities, BHASE programs, n.e.c
      Canadian education experience
      • 10 points for more than one Canadian credential
      • 5 points for one Canadian credential

      Language

      Official language ability
      • 10 points for CLB 9 or higher
      • 6 points for CLB 8
      • 4 points for CLB 7
      • 0 points for CLB 6 or lower
      Knowledge of official languages
      • 10 points for 2 Official Languages
      • 5 points for 1 Official Language

      Regionalization

      Regional immigration: location of study
      • 10 points for Northern Ontario
      • 8 points for other areas outside GTA (except Northern Ontario)
      • 3 points for inside GTA (except Toronto)
      • 0 points for Toronto

      Ontario Masters Stream Eligible Universities

      • Algoma University
      • Brescia University College Affiliated with the University of Western Ontario
      • Brock University
      • Carleton University
      • Dominican University College
      • Huron University College Affiliated with the University of Western Ontario
      • King’s University College at the University of Western Ontario
      • Lakehead University
      • Laurentian University
      • McMaster University
      • Nipissing University
      • Ontario College of Art & Design University
      • Queen’s University
      • Royal Military College of Canada
      • Ryerson University
      • Saint Paul University Federated with the University of Ottawa
      • St. Jerome’s University Federated with the University of Waterloo
      • Trent University
      • University of Guelph
      • University of Ontario Institute of Technology
      • University of Ottawa
      • University of St. Michael’s College Federated with the University of Toronto
      • University of Toronto
      • University of Trinity College Federated with the University of Toronto
      • University of Waterloo
      • University of Windsor
      • Victoria University Federated with the University of Toronto
      • Western University
      • Wilfrid Laurier University
      • York University